MANAR SCIENTIFICمؤسسة منار العلمية للدراسات والبحوث الصحية ESTABLISHMENT for HEALTH STUDIES& RESEARCHES
بروفسور. د. حسين الكاف
بروفسور. د.عبدالله عبدالولي ناشر
الدكتور محمد السعيدي
الدكتورة روزا الأغبري
أ. م. عايدة عبدالعزيز نعمان
د. ناصر قائد سيف
بروفسور صلاح الدين هداش
أ. طارق صلاح أسعد
تدريب و تأهيل
التعليم الطبي في اليمن
استثمار التعليم الصحي في اليمن
نقابة أطباء الأسنان اليمنيين
نقابة الأطباء والصيادلة اليمنيين
منظمات غير حكومية
واجبات وحقوق الطبيب
واجبات وحقوق الموظف
حوادث السير وأطفال المدارس
الإصدارات الصحية في اليمن
التأهيل وتنمية الكفأت
الخدمات الصحية والبحث العلمي
استثمار الكفاءات البشرية
استنزاف القدرات وهجرة الكفاءات
Flora of Yemen
By: Abdul Wali Al Khulaidi,
Agriculture Research & Extension Authority (AREA)
The flora of Yemen is a mixture of the tropical African, Sudanian plant geographical region and the Saharo-Arabian region.
The Sudanian element dominates the western mountains and parts of the high land plains, which is characteristic by relatively high rain fall.
The Saharo-Arabian element dominates in the coastal plains, eastern mountain and the eastern and northern desert plains.
A high percentage of Yemen plants belong to tropical African plants of Sudanian regions.
Among the Sudanian element species the following may be mentioned:
Ficus spp., Acacia mellifera, Grewia villosa, Commiphora spp., Rosa abyssinica, Cadaba farinosa and others.
Among the Saharo-Arabian species , the following may be mentioned:
Panicum turgidum, Aerva javanica. Zygophyllum simplex, Fagonia indica, Salsola spp., Acacia tortilis, A. hamulos, A. ehrenbergiana, Phoenix dactylifera, Hyphane thebaica , Capparis decidua, Salvadora persica, Balanites aegyptiaca and many others.
The characteristic genera of the Irano-Turanian which occur in the eastern and northern east of the country are: Calligonum spp. Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Tamarix spp. and of the Mediterranean regions are: Teucrium , Lavandula, Juniperus, Brassica and Diplotaxis
Yemen's flora is very rich..
Total plant species is about 2810 species , belongs to 1006 genera and 173 families, (2559 naturalized, 121 cultivated and 111 introduced).
Yemen is rich in endemic plants, with estimated to be 415 plant species (236 in Soqotra ). Constituting some 15% of the flora which does not occur elsewhere.
The most important families regarding to the number of plant species are:
من اهم الفصائل النباتية في اليمن من حيث احتوائها على العدد الأكبر من النباتات
The most important families regarding to the number of endemic are:
من اهم الفصائل النباتية من حيث احتوائها على العدد الأكبرمن النباتات المتوطنة :-
Among the important genera:
من أهم الأجناس مايلي:
MAIN FLORESTIC TYPES AND THEIR ENVIRONMANT
A) Western plain (Tihama plain):
It is the coastal plain between the Red Sea and the Tihama foot hills. It is about 420 km. long and about 50 km wide to the north and about 20 km at the south covering a total area of about 14,700 km2, with corresponds to approximately 2.6% of the area of Yemen. The altitude ranges between 0-300 m. above sea level. It is flat to undulating and intersected by several wadis (e.g. Wadi Mor, Wadi Riam, Wadi Zabid, Wadi Siham, Wadi Rusyan and Wadi Surdud) draining from the escarpment to the sea. . Average temperature ranges between 20-40 degree, annual rainfall ranges between 5-100mm.
B) Southern and southern east plain:
It is the coastal plain between the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and the mountains. They are about 1580 km long and 10 to 15 km wide in the west and about 60 km in the east, covering about 44240 km2 (approximately 7.9% of the area of Yemen). The altitude ranges between sea level and 200 m. It is flat to undulating and intersected by several wadis (e.g. W. Bana, W. Hasan, W. Ahwar, W. Hagr, W.Tuban and W. Mayfaa). . Average temperature ranges between 19-30 degree, annual rainfall ranges between 50-75mm.
The vegetation of these regions is similar to Somalia-Masai regional centre and Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert that occur in the coastal plain of east Africa
The spaces between the scattered trees mainly Acacia tortilis and Acacia eherenbergiana and larger shrubs like Salvadora persica are occupied by smaller shrubs and grasses like Panicum turgidum and Odyssea mucronata. Grass cover might sometimes appear, but only after a good rainfall. The wadis, drainage lines and gullies tend to support the most vegetation due to generally higher soil moisture levels.
Common floristic vegetation types in the coastal plains are:
1.1- Avicennia marina type
It is a mangrove swamp occurs along the Red sea coastal fringe, mainly north of the wadi Siham outlet, isolated swamps are also seen north Yakhtol (southern Tihama) and around Bir Ali (west of al Mukalla). Occasionally other plants such as Aeluropes lagopoides, Suaeda spp. and others can occur with this type and can be also considered as a transition to the vegetation types found further inland.
1.2- Suada fruticosa shrubland
This habitat is found along the coast on flat, often bare mud known locally as Sabakha and covers from shore line to about 5 km. inland. Suada fruticosa and Aeluropus lagopoides are the most common species in this habitat. The following vegetation types have been found:
1.2.1- Halopyrum mucronatum-Suaeda fruticosa type is dwarf shrubland and grassland
1.2.2- Aeluropus lagopoides- Suaeda fruticosa type is grassland
1.2.3- Suaeda fruticosa-Odyssea mucronata type is dwarf shrubland
Associeted species of these types are Acacia tortilis, Cadaba rotundifolia and Panicum turgidum.
1.3- Sandy plain covered by shrubland or bushland
This plain covers an area from 5-20 to 20-40 km. inland. Soil predominantly sandy and it is almost flat to slightly undulating . The plain consists of fine gravel, sand , silt and clay. Recent Aeolian deposits are frequent at the surface. Many sandy hummocks which covered by vegetation are found in many locations. The following vegetation types are found in this habitat:
1.3.1. Cadaba rotundifolia - Panicum torgidum Type:
Is open shrubland to sparse dwarf shrubland. Associated species are Acacia tortilis, Maerua crassifolia, Dipterypium glaucum and Indigofera oblongifolia.
1.3.2. Odyssea mucronata - Panicum turgidum type:
Is shrubland. Associated species are Dipterypium glaucum Cadaba rotundifolia and Dipterygium glaucum.
13.3. Salsola spinescens - Suaeda fruticosa type:
Is dwarf shrubland. Associated species are Salvadora persica.
1.3.4. Capparis decidua - Odyssea mucronata type:
Is sparse shrubland. Associeted species is Suaeda fruticosa
1.3.5. Tephrosia purpurea-Panicum turgidum type
Is shrubland to grassland found on waste and cultivated fields and also on sandy plain. Associeted species are Odyssea mucronata. Aerva javanica, Blepharis ciliaris, Cassia senna, Corchorus depressus and others.
1.4. Sand dunes aerea:
This unit is a degraded form of the previous unit. The vegetation cover is very low (less than 5%). The following vegetation types can be found:
1.4.1. Leptedenia pyrotechnica - Odyssea mucronata type:
Is a sparse grassland. Associated species is Dipterygium glavcum, occasionally Acacia tortitis, Cassi sinna and Cassia italica can be seen.
1.4.2. Dipterygium glaucum -Panicum turgidum type:
Is grassland. Associated species is Odyssea muncronata.
1.5. Gravelly plain areas:
It is slightly undulating and intersected by wide and shallow wadis or depressions and numerous drainage lines, where the vegetation is densely found. Most of these plains are concentrated southern Tihama (south wadi Zabid). The main vegetation types here are:
1.5.1. Bleplharis edulis - Lasiurus scindicus type:
is open woodland. Associated species are Indigofera spp., Rhigozum somalenese, Acacia tortitis, A. hamulosa, Commiphora myrrha, Fagonia indica, Anisotes trisulcus, Euphorbia conata and others.
1.5.2. Acacia ehrenbergiana - Lasiurus scindicus type:
is woodland to grassland. Associated species are Acacia tortitis, Indigofera oblongifolia, Euphorbia cuneata, Aloe vera, Fagonia indica, Tephrosia purpurea, Cissus quadrngularis and many others.
1.5.3. Euphorbia triaculeata - Sarcostemma sp. type:
is shrubland. Associated species are Lasiurus scindicus, Calligonum sp., Acacia hamulosa, Commiphora myrrha, Maerua crassifolia, Indigofera spinosa and others.
1.5.4. Cadaba rotundifolia - Panicum turgidum type:
is sparse dwarf shrubland to sparse grassland. Associated species are Lasiurus scindicus, Acacia tortitis, Indigofera oblongifolia, Acacia hamulosa, Euphorbia cuneata, and others.
1.5.5. Commiphora gileadensis - Acacia hamulosa Type:
is open woodland. Associated species are Acacia mellifera, Acacia hamulosa, Acacia tortitis, Commiphora myrrha, Rhigozum somalense, Indigofera spinosa and many others.
1.5.6. Acacia hamulasa - Commiphora myrrh type:
is open woodland. Associated species are Calligonum crinitum, Cadaba glandulosa, Euphorbia triaculeata, Punicum torgidum, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Pennisetum divisum.
1.6- Acacia ehrenbergiana woodland
This woodland is common in many parts of coastal plains such as wadis, depressions and alluvial plains. Associated species are Ziziphus spina-christi, Panicum turgidum, Acacia tortilis and others.
1.7- Ziziphus spina-christi - Dobera glabra cultivated lands
These lands are located on plains near the Tihama foothills. Scattered trees of Dodera glabra and Ziziphus spina-christi are found. On the fallow lands of this unit Dactyloctenium scindicum some time in dense cover is found, also in waste and fallow land the following type is found:
1.7.1- Tephrosia purpuria-Panicum turgidum type. Associated species here are Cenchrus ciliaris, Chloris barata, Brachiaria ramosa, Indigofera spinosa and Blepharis ciliaris.
2. Low altitude mountains:
a) Western mountains (Tihama foothills):
The Tihama foothills are located between the western lowlands and the escarpment below 1000 m, and range between 300 to 1000 m above the sea level. The landscape comprises of steep to moderately steep mountains and hills, intersected by drainage lines and big gullies. Average temperature ranges between15-40 degree, annual rainfall ranges between 200-400mm.
b) Southern and southern east mountains:
These mountains are facing the southern or southern east plains of Abyan and Lahj governorates and the middle parts of Hadramot governorate to the coastal areas of al-Mahara governorate. The altitude ranges between 400 to 1000 m above the sea level. The main wadi here is Wadi Hadramot. Average temperature ranges between 30-45 degree, annual rainfall ranges between 80-100mm.
The following vegetation types can be found:
2.1- Dactyloctenium scindicum-Anisotes trisulcus type
Is a sparse shrubland found on rocky slopes. Associated species are Ormocarpum yemenense, Grewia populifolia, Indigofera oblongifolia, I. spinosa, Euphorbia inarticulata, E. coneata, Adenium obesum , Aloe vera, Acacia tortilis, A. hamulosa, Commiphora myrrha and many others.
2.2- Dactyloctenium scindicum-Cassia italica type
Is sparse shrubland found on gravelly Wadi terraces and on the bed of narrow Wadis
2.3- Adenium obesum- Anisotes trisulcus type
is dwarf shrubland found on dry slopes. Associated species are Acacia tortilis, Commiphora myrrha and Dobera glabra.
2.4- Dobera glabra-Acacia mellifera type
is shrubland found on the foothills and rock outcrops of Tihama (e.g. eat suq Abs, J. Attur, near J. Buraa). Associated species are Anisotes trisulcus, Cadaba glandulasa, Euphorbia inarticulata, Acacia asak and Adenium obesum.
2.5- Acacia tortilis-Euphorbia coneata type
is open woodland found on the southern mountains and on some isolated mountains on the coastal plains (e.g. west al Rahida, south west al Barh and near Addimna). Associatede species are Anisotes trisulcus, Sarcostemma sp., Acalypha fruticosa, Aloe sp, Indigofera spinosa, Kleinia odora, Cissus quadrangularis, Aristida sp., Dobera glabra, Jatropha spinosa, Aerva javanica and others.
2.6- Acacia abyssinica-Trichilia emetica type
is a woodland found on steep rocky slopes and Wadi of J. Burro and J. Milhan and other valleys. Association species are Comberetum molle, Berchemia dicolor, Celtis africana, Carissa edulis, Cissus quadrangularis, C .rotundifolia, Anisotes trisulcus and many others.
2.7- Combretum molle-Ficus spp. type
is evergreen forest on valleys (e.g. J. Buraa and J. Milhan). Association species are Ficus vasta, F. salicifolia, Tamarindus indica, Trichilia emetica, Mimusops laurifolia and many others. On undisturbed valley slopes Acacia asak is become dominant associated species here are Grewia schweifuthii, Anisotes trisulcus, Carissa edulis, Barbeya oleoides and others
2.8- Acacia mellifera-Commiphora spp. type
Is sparse to open woodlands found on the Tihama foothills. Associated species are Commiphora myrrha, C. habyssinica, C. gileadensis, Indigofera spinosa
2.9- Anogeissus dhofarica woodland
Is a dense woodland found on the escarpment of an altitude of 700m. near Hawf (al Mahara gover.) Associated species are Croton conferts, Dodonaea angustifolia, Cadia purpurea, Jatropha dhofarica, Tamarindu indica, Commiphora spp., Acacia spp. and many others.
2.10- Commiphora spp.-Jatropha dhofarica type
Is a woodland occurs on the escarpment between 450-500m. of Hawf area. Associeted species are Aloe sp., Tephrosia sp., Solanum sp. and many others.
3. Medium altitude mountains:
a) Western mountains:
Comprise of the mountains located west of Hajja and al-Mahwit governorates, around J. Milhan and Jabel Bura, Taiz highlands, and mountains located around Madinat Ash Sharq, west Huth and west al-Makhadir (Ibb). The altitude ranges between 1000 to 1800m above the sea level.
b) Southern and southern east mountains:
The altitude ranges between 1000 to 1800 m above the sea level (high to the west and low to the east), and comprise the mountains of Adhale, Mukairas, Yafe assufla, J. Eraf (south al-Maqatra), al-Awaleq assufla, Loder, Modia, J. al-Arais (Abyan governorate), J. Jihaf (Lahj governorate), Harf and mountain of Hadhramot.
The following vegetation types can be found:
3.1- Acacia asak-Indigofera spinosa type
Is a woodland found on large parts of steep to moderate steep slope mountains. Associated species are Ruellia patula, Aerva javanica, Barleria trispinosa, B. bispinosa, Acalypha fruticosa, Anisotes trisulcus, Ormocarpum yemenense, Blepharis ciliaris, Grewia erthrea, G. tenax, Eragrostes sp., Kleinia odora, Caralluma quadrangula and many others.
3.2- Euphorbia spp. shrubland
A large number of vegetation types occur here for example:
3.2.1- Pergularia tomentosa-Euphorbia cactus type
3.2.2- Euphorbia schemperi-Euphorbia inarticulata type
3.2.3- Psiadia arabica- Euphorbia schemperi type
3.2.4- Euphorbia cactus-Euphorbia parciramulosa type
3.2.5- Euphorbia coneata-Andropogon greenwayi type
These types found on the slopes of mountains around Taiz, east Madinat Ashsharq, near Hammam Ali and south Hajjah. Associated species are many, such as Ruellia patula, Aerva javanica, Hibiscus deflersii, Commicarpus helenae, Barleria spp., Ormocarpum yemenense, Grewia spp., Cissus rutondifolia, Kleinia odora, Indigofera spinosa, I. arabica, Anisotes trisulcus, Caralluma quadrangula, Blepharis ciliaris, Sarcostemma sp., Sanseveria spp., Lantana salvifolia, Justicia flava, J. odora, Heliotropium spp., Hypostes forskalea, Cadia purpurea and many others.
3.3- Aloe vera-Acalypha fruticosa type
Is sparse shrubland found on steep to moderate steep slope near Madinat Ashsharq. Associated species are Anisotes trisulcus, Ormocarpum yemenense, Cissus quadrangularis, Indigofera spinosa, Acacia asak, A. etbaica, Kleinia odora, Barleria bispinosa, Adenium obesum, Acalypha fruticosa, Euphorbia cactus and others.
3.4- Grewia villosa-Andropogon greenwayi type
Is sparse shrubland to grassland found on steep to moderate steep slope mountains south Hajjah,(between 1240-1550m.). Associated species are Psiadia arabica, Pupalia lappacea, Salvia sp., Ruellia patula, Commicarpus helenae, Leucus glabrata, Grewia spp., Ocimum hadiens, Adenium obesum, Seddera arabica, Acalypha fruticosa, Blepharis ciliaris and others
3.5- Cenchrus ciliaris-Commicarpus glandiflorus type
Is open woodland to dwarfshrubland found on almost flat to steep slope stony mountains and road sides (between 1600-1800m.). Associated species are Andropogon distachyus, Aerva javanica, Indigofera spinosa, Anisotes trisulcus, Eragrostes sp., Forsskaolea tenacissima, Commicarpus grandiflorus, Acalypha fruticosa, Withania somnifera, Alternanthera pungens, Kleinia odora and others.
3.6- Aerva javanica-Hibiscus vitifolius type
Is a shrubland found on stony steep slope mountains near wadi Sharis (south Hajjah), between 1300-1400m. Associated species are Forsskaolea tenacissima, Indigofera spinosa, Heliotropium longiflorum, Cissus quadrangularis, Borhavia repens, Solanum incanum, Adenium obesum and others.
3.7-Acacia mellifera woodlands
These woodlands cover a large parts of medium altitude mountains such as north and North east of Taiz, J. al Arayes, west Huth, around Madinat Ashsharq. For example:
3.7.1- Acacia mellifera-Euphorbia cactus &
3.7.2- Acacia mellifera-Euphorbia inarticulata types are found on slopes north and north east Taiz (between 1200-1500m.). Associated species are: Ruellia patula, Grewia erythrea, Cissus rotundifolia, Kleinia odora, Indigofera spinosa, I. arabica, Anisotes trisulcus, Borhavia repens, Lantana salvifolia, Cassia italica, Seddera arabica, Euphorbia shemperi, Heliotropium sp., Hypostes forskalea, Cadia purpurea and many others.
3.7.3- Acacia mellifera-Ocimum hadiens type
Is a woodland found on moderate steep slope mountains and hills east Madinat Ashsharq (between 1400-1610m.). Associated species are Kleinia odora, Grewia tenax, Ormocarpum yemenenses, Indigofera spinosa, Seddera arabica, Commicarpus helenea, Acacia asak, Ruellia patula and others.
3.7.4- Acacia mellifera-Euphorbia coneata type
Is a woodland occurs on moderate to steep slope mountains and hills east Madinat Ashsharq (between 1380-1440m.). Associated species are the same of type 3.7.3 plus the following : Sarcostemma sp. Blepharis ciliaris and Aloe sp.
3.8- Tridax pvocumbeus-Indigofera spinosa type
Is a shrubland to grassland found on wadi beds and degraded slopes east of Madinat Ashsharq and east Hammam Ali (between 1590-1650m.). Associated species are Solanum incanum, Bidens bitata, Ocimum hadiens, Indigofera spinosa, Eragrostes papposa, Aristida adscensionis, Acalypha fruticosa, Commicarpus boissieri, Borhavia repens, Lavandula pubsence, Rumex nervesus and others.
3.9- Mentha longifolia-Conyza incana type
Is a shrubland found on wadi beds where the water is flowing almost all the year, (e.g. wadi Rimaa, between 1200-1300m.). Associated species are Ricinus communis, Polygala sp., Flaveria trinervia, Trichilia emetica, Acanthus arboreus, Cordia africana, Pandanus odoratissimus and others.
3.10- Breonadia salicina-Tridax pvocumbeus type
Is a sparse shrubland found on wadi beds of Sharis (south Hajjah), between 1100-1380m. Associated species are Aristida adscensionis, Solanum incanum, Indigofera spinosa, Borhavia repens, Ziziphus spina-christi, Tagetes minuta and others.
3.11- Acacia asak-Cadia purpurea type
Is open woodland found on the western escarpment mountains at elevation of 1200-1600m. Associated species are Acacia mellifera, A. etbaica, Commiphora kataf, Boscia angustifolia, Adenium obesum, Psiadia arabica, Kleinia odora, Commicarpus helenae, Becium filamentosum, Rhynchelyten repens, Themeda triandra, Elyonurus muticus, Eragrostis papposa, Hypoestes forskalea and many others.
3.12- Acacia etbaica woodlands
These woodlands are found on plains, plateaus, at the bottom of mountains and on moderate steep slope mountains (between 1400-1800m.). A number of vegetation types can be found:
3.12.1- Acacia etbaica-Gnidia somalensis type
Is open woodland found on plateau of J. Eraf (about 1350m.). Associated species are Euphorbia schemperi, Ruellia patula, Aerva javanica, Aloe inermis, Commicarpus helenea, Lantana sp., Ormocarpum yemenense, Tetrapogon villosum, Solanum incanum, Fagonia incanum, Euphorbia coneata, and others.
3.12.2- Acacia etbaica-Euphorbia cactus type
Is woodland found on moderate steep slope mountains and hills south Taiz (between 1400-1600m.). Associated species are Euphorbia inarticulata, E. schemperi, E. ammak, Acacia mellifera, Cissus quadrangularis, C. rotundifolia, Blepharis ciliaris, Fagonia indica, Justicia flava, Solanum incanum, Polygala senensis, Cyanotes sp., Borhavia repens, Psiadia arabica, Heliotropium sp., Dodonae viscosa, and others.
3.13- Juniperus procera-Psiadia arabica type
Is a forest found on moderate steep slope of J. Eraf (al Maqatirah, Taiz) and J. Thogan (al Qabetah, Taiz), between 1350-1450m. Associated species are Acacia etbaica, Cadia purpurea, Teucrium yemens, Tetrapogon villosum, Barleria sp., Rhus spp., Carissa edulis, Aristida sp., Seddera arabica, Tarchonanthus camphoranthus, Commicarpus helenae and many others, some of the species not unidentified yet and could be new or endemic to Yemen or to Arabian peninsula.
4. High altitude mountains:
a) These mountains lie above 1800 m and comprise the mountains of Ibb, Sabir, at-Turba, Reyma, Dhamar, J. Alloz, J. an-Nabi Shuaib, Mukeiras, J. Abran, Yafe al-Ulya, Hajja and Sana’a. Average temperature ranges between 10-26 degree, annual rainfall ranges between 200-.800 and reach to about 1000 mm around Ibb, al Mahwit and Hajjah.
Main vegetation types of the region are:
4.1- Rosa abyssinica-Scabiosa columbaria type
Is a grassland or dwarf shrubland occur on the steep slope mountains of J. Saber (south Taiz), between 2000-2300m. Associated species are Echinops spinosissimus, Chelianthus sp., Acanthus arboreus, Satureja biflora, Gomphocarpus fruticosa, Rumex nervusus and others.
4.2- Themeda triandra-Barleria proxima type
Is a shrubland to grassland found on moderate steep slope mountains and hills, between 1900-2200m., such as east and south east wadi Mauna (between Maaber and Madinat Ashsharq) and south east Hajjah. Associated species are Psiadia arabica, Andropogon greenwayi, Cadia purpurea, Ruellia patula, Cyphostemma digitata, Lantana viburnoides, Leucus glabrata, Aristida sp. Eragrostes papposa, Acacia etbaica and others.
4.3- Micromeria biflora-Pennisetum setacem type
Is woodland to sparse grassland found on steep slope mountains and terraces (between 1950-2250m.). Associated specioes are Richardia tingitata, Andropogon sp., Anisotus trisulcus, Eragrostes papposa, Acacia origena, Themeda trindra, Acanthus arboreus, Teucrium yemense, Felica abyssinica, Hypostes forskalei, Solanum incanum, Leucus glabrata and many others.
4.4- Kniphofia somarea-Acanthus arboreus type
Is a dense shrubland occurs on steep slope mountain of Sumara (between 2600-2700m.). Associated species are Pterocephalus pulverulentus, Satureja biflora, Ammi majus, Ferula communis, Anagalis arvensis, Echinops spinosissimus, Campanula edulis and others.
4.5- Thymus serphyllum-Acanthus arboreus type
Is a shrubland occurs on moderate to almost flat rocky mountains and hills at elevation above 2600m. Associated species are Euphorbia schemperiana, Andropogon sp., Hypostes forskalei, Teucrium yemens, Vermitrox abyssinica, Plectranthus spp., Themeda trindra, Osteospermum vaillantii, Jasminum grandiflorum, Echinops spinosissimus, Dianthus uniflorus, Rumex nervusus, Polygala senensis and others.
4.6- Acacia origena type
Is open woodland found near or on cultivated fields of wadis, plains and plateaus or slopes (e.g. Ibb, NE Atturba, J. Saber, and J. Sumara). Associated species are Ziziphus spina-christi, Euphorbia ammak Euryops arabica, Plectranthes spp. and others
5. Highland plains:
a) High altitude plains located over 1800 m and including those around Sa’da, Sana’a, Dhamar, Rada and qa-Bakil.
b) low altitude plains(< 1800m) include those around al-Qaeda.
Main vegetation types are:
5.1. Elyonurus muticus - Euriops arabica type:
Is grassland to dwarf shrubland found on rocky slopes of mountain plains. Associated species are Andropogon sp., Becium capitatom, Felicia abyssinica, Pennisetum setaceum, Kleinia semperviva, Dianthus uniflorus.
5.2. Peganum harmala - Blepharis ciliaris type:
Is a shrubland found on flat, rocky areas or old fallow lands. (Such as around Maber and Sana’a). Associated species are Enneapogon desvauxii, Lycium shawii, Pulicaria crispa, Sonchus oleraceus.
5.3. Tetrapogon villosum - Cynodon dactylon:
is a grassland occur on rocky fallow land. Associated species are Cenchrus ciliaris, Indigofera arabica, Pulicaria crispa, Sonchus oleraceus, Pennisetum villosum, Brachiaria erucidiformis.
5.4. Acacia etabaica - Euphorbia inarticulata type:
is open woodland found on plains below 1500 m (e.g. Qa al Qaeda). Associated species are Withania somnifera, Ziziphus spina-christi, Solanum incanum, Fagonia indica, Eragrostes sp., Aerva javanica, Lycium shawii, Caralluma penicilata, Euphorbia cactus,Cissus rotondifolia, Commicarpus helenae, Hypostesforskalei, Indigofera spinosa, Kleina odora.
5.5. Acacia origena open woodland:
The common type here Acacia origena - Pennisetum setacem type is a woodland found on mountain slopes and terraces (between 1950 - 2250 m). Associated species are Micropmeria biflora, Andropogon sp., Richardia tingitada, Themeda triandra, Acanthus arborus and others.
5.6. Felicia abyassinica- Andropogon sp. type:
is grassland occurs on oderate steep sloope mountains and hills (between 2300 - 2370m). Associated species are Teucrium yemense, Echinops spinosissimus, Tetrapogon villosu, Indigofera arabica, Salvia aegyptiaca, Eragrostes papposa, Blepharis citiars, Helichrysum somaliense, Gomphocarpus fruticosos, Euphorbia granulata, Hypostes forskalei, Thymus serpyllum and others
6. Eastern and northern east mountains:
a) high altitude mountains > 1800 m.
They include the mountains which form the division between the wadis flowing west (Red Sea) and east into the desert, and comprise the mountains east mountain plains of Dhamar and Amran, east and north Rada’, between Rada’ and al-Bayda and between Abyan and al-Bayda.
Average temperature ranges between 16-20 degree, annual rainfall ranges between 50-300mm.
b) Medium altitude mountains (1200-1800 m):
These mountains drop several hundred meters into the eastern desert plains and include the mountains east Sa’da, around and west Marib, north al-Bayda, around Bayhan and north Ataq.
Average temperature ranges between 40-45 degree, annual rainfall ranges between 50-150mm, and less than 50mm towards the desert.
Main vegetation types of this region are:
6.1. Chrysopogon plumulosus - Lavandula pubescens Type:
Is dwarf shrub occurs on dry rocky slope mountain east Dhamar plains. Associated species are Andropogon sp., Beciumitatum, Felicia abyhssinica, Pennisetum setaceum and other.
6.2. Chrysopogon plumlosus - Helichrysum somaliense type:
is grassland to dwarf shrubland occurs on flat to moderately slope areas. Associated species are Tetrapogon villosum, Blepharis ciliaris, Enneapogon desvaxii, Lycium shawii, Eragrostis paposa, Aristida adscenionis and others.
6.3. Lavandula pubescens - Chrysopogon plumulosus type:
is a dwarf shrubland occurs o the plains and hills between 1800 - 2600 m (east highland plains). Associated species are Acacia arigena, Gnidia somaliense, Seddera arabica, Fagonia indica, Peganum harmala, Tetrapogon villosum and others.
6.4. Euphorbia balsamifera - Kleinia odora type:
is a dwarf shrubland occurs on limestone plateau. Associated species are Euphorbia fruticosa, Aristida adscensionis, Lycium shawii, Barleria proxima and others.
6.5. Andropogon crossotos type:
is open grassland found on plains, hills and montains around Rada at elevation up to 2600 m. Associated species are Helichrysum somaliense, Andrachne aspera, Aloe vacillans, Caralluma guadrangularis, Kleinia odora, Chrysopogon plumulosus, Cenchrus ciliaris, Tetraqpogon villosum and others.
6.6. Euphorbia inarticulata - Psiadia arabica type:
is a shrubland occurs south west of al Baydha governorate and along the road Rada-al Baydah at elevation lower than 2200 m. Associated species are Solanum sepicola, Lavandula pubescens, Blepharis ciliaris, Tetrapogon villosum, Chrysopogon plumulosus, Euphorbia cactus and others.
6.7. Acacia nilotica - Barleria parvifolia type:
is an open woodland occurs on Wadis and plains or depressions at elevation about 1800 to 2000 m. Associated species are Solanum spp., Lycium shawii, Cynadon dactylon, Peganum harmala, Acacia gerrardii, Ziziphus spina-christi and others.
6.8. Acacia oerfota - Commiphora myrrh type:
is open bushland occurs on mountains and Wadis and hills adjacent to the desert and north east al Baydha governorate. Associated species are Acacia totrilis, Salvadora persica, Tamarix aphylla, Desmotachya bipinanata, Pennisetum divisum, Stipagraostis hirtiguma and others.
6.9. Acacia asak - Cadia purpurea type:
Is open woodland occurs southern part of al Baydha governorate. The elevation is less than 1600 m. Associated species Acacia mellifera, Commiphora myrrha, “Adenium obesum, Euphorbia sp. The Wadis in this unit are characterized by large trees such as Brreonadia salicina, Trichilia emetica, Tamarix indica, Ficus spp. and Ziziphus spina-christi.
6.10. Acacia etbaica - Ziziphus spina-christi type:
Is open woodland found east of Sadha on Wadis and depressions.
7. Eastern desert:
Extend along the northern border of Yemen and drop from 1000 m towards north, east and northern east to less than 500 m, and include the areas east and north Marib, north Hadhramout and Ramlat assabatein..
The following vegetation types can be found:
7.1- Acacia tortilis - Aerva javanica type
Is a grassland to woodland occurs on wadis, drainage lines, along the edges of the wadi and sand dunes. Associated species are Panicum turgidum, Fagonia indica, Indigofera spinosa, Dipterygium glaucum, Rhazia stricta, Jatropha spinosa, Pennisetum setaceum, Pergularia tomentosa, Aristida adscensionis, Acacia oerfota and others.
7.2- Dipterygium glaucum-Panicum turgidum type
Is sparse shrubland occurs on undulating sand dune plain or almost gravely plain near Marib. Associated species are Aerva javanica, Fagonia indica, Salsola imbricata, Stipagrostis spp. and others.
7.3- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Salsola imbricata type
Is sparse shrub-woodland found on undulating to almost flat, slightly saline soil areas (northern west Marib). Associated species are Aerva javanica, Panicum turgidum, Rhazia stricta, Dipterygium glaucum, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Acacia tirtilis, Fagonia indica, Salvia merjamie, Tamarix sp., Desmostachya bipinnata and others.
7.4- Calotropis procera-Dipterygium glaucum type
Is spaarse grassland and accopies most of the eastern desert plain. Associeted species are Aerva javanica, Panicum turgidum and Acacia tortilis.
7.5- Ziziphus spina-christi cultivated lands
Is found on many cultivated lands as a traditional Agro forestry system in the Marib and Harib areas.
lies off the northeast corner of Africa (between lat. 12 19’ to 12 42’, and long. 53 20’ to 54 30’) and it is about 3625 km2., and part of Hadhramout governorate. There is about 830 plant species have been recorded In the island so far , and of these 260 are endemic. Many of these plants have traditional use, such as fodder, fuelwood, building materials, gums, foods, resins and medicines. The population of the island is estimated to be 80 000 people.
The island of Abdul Kuri
lies about 100 km east of the horn of Africa, between 12؛ 08'- 12؛ 14' N and 52؛ 04' - 52؛ 25' E. The altitude ranges between sea level and 570m. The human population estimated to be about 500 people. The area of the island is about 162km2.
The island of Samha
lies about 100 km east of the horn of Africa, between 12؛ 06'- 12؛ 10' N 54؛ 01' - 53؛ 07' E. The altitude ranges between sea level and 744m.
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